As president of the Madera NAACP Branch 1084/ACTSO, I would like to share the historical background of the worldwide Juneteenth celebration, which originated on June 19, 1865, in Galveston, Texas. Maj. Gen. Gordon Grainger landed with his troops and shared the announcement of the following:
“Juneteenth is the oldest known celebration commemorating the ending of slavery in the United States. Dating back to 1865, it was on June 19 that the Union soldiers, led by Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger, landed at Galveston, Texas, with news that the war had ended and that the enslaved were now free. Note that this was two and a half years after President Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation — which had become official Jan. 1, 1863. The Emancipation Proclamation had little impact on the Texans due to the minimal number of Union troops to enforce the new executive order. However, with the surrender of Gen. Lee in April of 1865, and the arrival of Gen. Granger’s regiment, the forces were finally strong enough to influence and overcome the resistance.
Why the delay?
“Later attempts to explain this 2 1/2-year delay in the receipt of this important news have yielded several versions that have been handed down through the years. Often told is the story of a messenger who was murdered on his way to Texas with the news of freedom. Another is that the news was deliberately withheld by the enslavers to maintain the labor force on the plantations. And still another is that federal troops actually waited for the slave owners to reap the benefits of one last cotton harvest before going to Texas to enforce the Emancipation Proclamation. All of which, or neither of these versions could be true. Certainly, for some, President Lincoln’s authority over the rebellious states was in question. For whatever the reasons, conditions in Texas remained status quo well beyond what was statutory.”
General Order No. 3
One of Gen. Granger’s first orders of business was to read to the people of Texas General Order No 3 which began most significantly with:
“The people of Texas are informed that in accordance with a Proclamation from the Executive of the United States, all slaves are free. This involves an absolute equality of rights and rights of property between former masters and slaves, and the connection heretofore existing between them becomes that between employer and free laborer.”
The reactions to this profound news ranged from pure shock to immediate jubilation. While many lingered to learn of this new employer-to-employee relationship, many left before these offers were completely off the lips of their former masters — attesting to the varying conditions on the plantations and the realization of freedom.
Even with nowhere to go, many felt that leaving the plantation would be their first grasp of freedom. North was a logical destination and for many it represented true freedom, while the desire to reach family members in neighboring states drove some into Louisiana, Arkansas and Oklahoma.
Settling into these new areas as free men and women brought on new realities and the challenges of establishing a heretofore non-existent status for black people in America.
Time for reassurance
Recounting the memories of that great day in June of 1865 and its festivities would serve as motivation as well as a release from the growing pressures encountered in their new territory. The celebration of June 19 was coined “Juneteenth” and grew with more participation from descendants. The Juneteenth celebration was a time for reassuring each other, for praying and for gathering remaining family members. Juneteenth continued to be highly revered in Texas decades later, with many former slaves and descendants making an annual pilgrimage back to Galveston on this date.
(Information found in the National Registry for the Juneteenth Celebration website, listed above.)
We, the Madera NAACP Branch 1084 hope this information will answer any questions that the community may have had about what Juneteenth is and why many African Americans celebrate the nationally recognized date of June 19 the day the Texas slaves learned of the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation and their freedom.
Plans for future
Although the Madera NAACP is not having a community-wide celebration this year, we will be forming a Juneteenth Celebration Committee to start the planning for a 2013 Juneteenth Jubilee Celebration and Parade. If you would like to be a part of the committee, the Madera NAACP Branch 1084 contact information is: 481-3511 or email maderanaacp at yahoo dot com.
On Juneteenth, this Tuesday, June 19, 2012, share this information with all you know and have a great day.
President, Madera NAACP Branch 1084/ACTSO